Language Style - Danish

From SailfishOS Documentation

Style guidelines and principles

This document provides generic style guidelines for Sailfish OS. The target audience for this documentation is everyone translating Sailfish OS-related material. The goal is to create contemporary translations that provide a high-quality user experience.

Sailfish OS audience and target group for the translations is young, active users accustomed to social media and therefore its language.

Please consult Retskrivningsordbogen (the 2012 version) frequently. This is the most prominent Danish tool for correct spelling, punctuation, abbreviations and the like. Retskrivningsordbogen can be found online: http://www.dsn.dk/ro/. Here you can search for entries (the tab “Retskrivningsordbogen”), and you can search through rules (the tab “Retskrivningsregler”). In case of discrepancies between these guidelines and Retskrivningsordbogen, please raise a query.

Basics of good writing style

  • Write in a personal style, engaging and involving the user.
  • Use active style and present tense. Use imperatives and talk to the user.
  • Make sure the text is consistent and clear and correct in grammar and spelling.
  • Write in short sentences.
  • Use a positive tone, avoid negative expressions.
  • Avoid ambiguity. Make sure that pronouns point clearly to the relevant nouns, and avoid long strings of modifiers or nouns.

Remember we are sailing on a jolly boat. Have fun! Play with the language. Be innovative and guide the readers onto a journey. Do not attempt to use humor, but use fresh and fun tone where it naturally fits. Remember that the most important part is delivering a clear message.

Note that in technical writing, descriptions and instructions should not include text that is written from a marketing point of view.

Language and culture

Because our communication is targeted to international use and part of it will be translated, try to keep the language culturally unambiguous, be careful of religious references, and avoid using idiomatic expressions or slang. The key aspects are clarity and simplicity. Consider these targets when adapting the jolly tone to the texts. In software UI translations: Respect the source text, but do not create word for word translations. Take the context into account when translating.

Grammar

Spelling

The latest edition of Retskrivningsordbogen allows for alternative spelling of some terms. For the sake of consistency, please note the following:

  • Allowed: it, tv, cd-rom
  • Instead of: IT, TV, CD-rom

Articles

When possible, leave out articles.

Nouns

Please remember that in Danish (unlike in English), most compound nouns must be written in one word.

  • Correct: kaffebønner, testrapport
  • Incorrect: kaffe bønner, test rapport

If in doubt: Consult Retskrivningsordbogen, or simply write it in one word.

Person

Please try to be informal if that is natural in your language.

In Danish, use the second person:

  • Correct: Vælg sange
  • Incorrect: Brugeren vælger sange

Avoid using gender:

  • Correct: Vælg sangene
  • Incorrect: Han vælger selv sangene

Avoid pronouns:

  • Incorrect: Du vælger selv sangene

Keep addressing consistent: e.g. if a paragraph was started using the second person, retain it throughout all its sentences (as opposed to switching to third person or neutral mood).

Gender

Use gender-neutral or all-inclusive terms to refer to human beings, rather than terms that include man, woman, and similar masculine and feminine terms. For example:

  • Correct: Forsanger
  • Incorrect: Sangerinde

Tense

Use the present tense. E.g.:

  • Correct: Media player vælger sangene
  • Incorrect: Media player vil vælge sangene

Voice

Whenever possible, use the active voice. Keep the message clear and the sentences short. For example:

  • Correct: Opdater dine kontoindstillinger i…
  • Incorrect: Kontoindstillinger opdateres i…

Mood

Use the imperative form. For example:

  • Correct: Gå til Indstillinger
  • Incorrect: Brugeren går til Indstillinger

Capitalisation

Capitalise application names and company names.

In the UI, start the first word with a capital letter.

Respect capitalisation rules of the language in question. Capitalise application names and company names.

  • E.g. application name: Kalender.

In software UI: Start the first word with a capital letter, but not the subsequent ones. The UI term Åbn besked, e.g.:

  • Correct: Gå til Åbn besked
  • Incorrect: Gå til Åbn Besked, Gå til åbn besked

In all other instances, please respect the capitalisation rules of the language in question – see Retskrivningsordbogen.

Menu style in the UI

User Interface menu items are named using verbs.

Empty states in the UI

User Interface empty states are typically written in the 2-sentence form, using verbs and active tone and, where possible, guiding the user towards the next possible steps to take. Keep sentences short and content informative. Where possible, guide user to reflect the good sides of an application or service (like referring to friends instead of contacts in the People app).
For example: <Tell the situation, what items are missing><point user to next actions> → <No contacts yet.><Pull down to add your friends.>

App covers (that are shown in the Home) for empty states aim to be short informative messages. Length is typically two words.

Punctuation

End punctuation

In UI strings, do not use a full stop at the end of a sentence if there’s only one sentence. If there are two or more sentences, use full stops normally.

If the segment ends with the colon or ellipsis, the translation should follow the source.

Comma

The traditional Danish comma is used (see Retskrivningsordbogen).

Abbreviations

In technical writing, use common abbreviations. Do not use Latin abbreviations.

In the UI, use common abbreviations, including Latin abbreviations. Make sure text clarity does not suffer. If in doubt, do not use an abbreviation.

Do not use a full stop in or after acronyms or initialisms, e.g.:

  • Correct: WLAN
  • Incorrect: W.L.A.N.

Do not use a full stop with unit (measurement) symbols, e.g.:

  • Correct: kg
  • Incorrect: kg.

Use a full stop with Latin abbreviations, e.g.:

  • Correct: e.g., ca., etc.
  • Incorrect: eg, ca, etc

Hyphenation

Use hyphen in object-verbal noun compounds.

  • Correct: read only-fil
  • Incorrect: read only fil, readonly fil

Use hyphens in compound nouns.

  • Correct: cd-rom, cd-rom-drev
  • Incorrect: cd rom, cd rom drev or cd-rom drev

Please note that the hypen is short (-). For dashes, please use short dash (–, "en dash", Alt + 0150). Do not use English long dashes (—, "em dash", Alt + 0151) or double dashes. In many cases, dash may be replaced by comma in the Danish sentence.

Series

Use a comma to separate elements in a series, but not between the last two elements.

  • Correct: Vælg sang, mappe og placering
  • Incorrect: Vælg sang, mappe, og placering

Use a semicolon to separate items in a series when one or more items have internal punctuation.

Plurals

Do not create plurals with parentheses. Consult translation tool user guide for handling the plurals.

Quotation marks

Respect language's quotation rules. A comprehensive list of marks can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotation_mark#Summary_table_for_various_languages

Lists

In technical writing, write lists with bullets.

In the UI, write lists without bullets or colons.

Headings

In technical writing, create structured, consistent and accurate headings. Consider verb structures in headings.

Text modules

In technical writing, make sure each module can be read independently, containing all the needed information so that modules do not need to be read in any certain order.

Procedures

In technical writing, when describing procedures, make sure to describe the steps clearly with only one task per step. Describe the expected results of those steps.

Numerals

Numbers

Write numbers as digits, including numbers below 10. For example:

  • Correct: 1 besked modtaget
  • Incorrect: En besked modtaget

In Danish, decimals are written with a comma, unlike the English full stop: 2,5 kg

Thousand separators are written as full stop unlike the English comma: 12.500 kg

Measurements

Use numerals for measurements.

Use a space between the numeral and the unit. This also goes for percentage signs and degrees: 250 kg, 45 %, 20 ˚C

Terminology

Sailfish OS has a separate Terminology project to maintain consistency. Use that approved terminology when available.

Company names

Do not translate company names unless there is an official, translated name available.

Product names and trademarks

Do not translate product names or trademarks.

Safety information and legal texts

Warnings, cautions, and notes are legal texts that need to be confirmed with legal department. In case of legal texts, follow the instructions carefully and ask for more information if needed.

Checklist

When finalising translations for the UI, check the following:

  • Everything has been translated to your best knowledge.
  • Spell check is done.
  • Check consistency with the other translations done for the language.
  • Ensure correct Sailfish OS terminology is used. If needed, propose new term entries.
  • Confirm legal texts are consistent with the source.
  • Company and product names, trademarks, symbols, and measurements have not been hyphenated.
  • Ensure regional formats are retained, such as date, time, numeric and quotation literals.

When finalising texts for the technical writing, check these points as well:

  • Titles and headings are structured and accurate.
  • Language is clear and consistent.
  • Sentences vary in length and have a clear form.